Seminar experimentelle Physik der kondensierten Materie

Programm für das Wintersemester 2019/2020

Thursdays, 14:00 Uhr s.t.

Ort: SFB/TR49 - Prof. Dr. Elmers, der Raum wird separat angekündigt

12.12.19Camilo Ulloa, Utrecht University, NL
In this talk I will discuss the main concepts of magnon transport through magnetic insulators. I will focus my talk on how to excite and manipulate magnetic degrees of freedom in ferromagnetic materials, and show some of the different ways we can model magnetic insulators, going from quantum mechanics to hydrodynamics.

18.12.19Joel Moore, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
This talk starts by reviewing known examples of how topological materials generate new kinds of electrodynamic couplings and effects. Three-dimensional topological insulators realize a particular electromagnetic coupling known as “axion electrodynamics”, and understanding this leads to an improved understanding of magnetoelectricity in all materials. We then turn to how topological Weyl and Dirac semimetals can show unique electromagnetic responses; we argue that in linear response the main observable effect solves an old problem via the orbital moment of Bloch electrons, and how in nonlinear optics there should be a new quantized effect, which may have been seen experimentally. This nonlinear effect has a natural quantum e^3/h^2 and appears in chiral Weyl semimetals over a finite range of frequencies. We discuss interaction and disorder corrections to nonlinear responses in closing.

Sonderseminar

TOPDYN

19.12.19Prof. Dennis Meier, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level. In my talk, I will present domain walls with unique functionalities which emerge in spin-spiral multiferroics and chiral magnets and which hold great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications. In particular, I will discuss that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. In contrast to domain walls in conventional ferroics, such domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which — analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals — consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our studies establish domain walls in chiral magnets as functional nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts in information and communication nanotechnology.

16.01.20Dr. Dongwook Go, Peter Grünberg Institut and Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich
Electrical control of magnetism is a central theme in the field of spin-orbitronics. Current scheme relies on electrical generation of the spin current/density by utilizing the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) instead of using an extra ferromagnet (FM) as a spin polarizer. For example, in a bilayer structure consisting of a FM layer and a nonmagnet (NM) layer, spin current and density can be induced by the spin Hall effect in the NM and Rashba-Edelstein effect at the NM/FM interface, respectively. However, there has been a missing piece in spin-orbitronics so far: electrons carry angular momentum in the orbital wave function as well as in the spin. In this seminar, I demonstrate that the orbital degree of freedom exhibits rich dynamical phenomena, which is in contrast to a common expectation that the orbital is quenched in solids. In the first part, I explain how to electrically generate the orbital angular momentum. Here, I introduce concepts of the orbital Rashba-Edelstein effect [1] and the orbital Hall effect [2], which are orbital analogs of the Rashba effect and the spin Hall effect, respectively. These are not only parental effects for their spin analogs, such that the spin phenomena follow the orbital phenomena by the SOC, but also present even in the absence of the SOC. In the second part, I focus on the consequence of the injection of the orbital angular momentum into the FM. As the spin injection gives rise to the spin torque (ST), the orbital injection results in torque on the magnetic moment, which we call orbital torque (OT) [3]. In the mechanism of the OT, it is not necessary to prepare the spin current or density beforehand as in the conventional mechanisms such as the spin Hall effect and Rashba-Edelstein effect. Since both OT and ST contribute to magnetic dynamics, it opens a route to enhancing the torque efficiency in spin-orbitronic devices. Interestingly, we notice that the sign of the torque efficiency in the NM/FM bilayer can be opposite to the sign of the spin Hall effect in the NM if the sign of the OT differs from that of the ST. As a prototypical example, I compare Fe/W(110) and Ni/W(110) bilayers from first principles calculation and discuss qualitatively distinct features of the OT for the experimental detection [4]. As the study on the orbital dynamics has started very recently, I briefly discuss future directions for consistent understanding of entangled dynamics of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom in solids.

23.01.20Stéphane Mangin, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France
During the last decade all-optical ultrafast magnetization switching in magnetic material thin film without the assistance of an applied external magnetic field has been explored [1,2]. It has been shown that femto-second light pulses can induce magnetization reversal in a large variety of magnetic materials [3,4]. However, so far, only certain particular ferrimagnetic thin films exhibit magnetization switching via a single femto-second optical pulse. We will present the single-pulse switching of various magnetic material (ferrimagnetic, ferromagnetic) within a magnetic spin-valve structure and further show that the four possible magnetic configurations of the spin valve can be accessed using a sequence of single femto-second light pulses. Our experimental study reveals that the magnetization states are determined by spin-polarized currents generated by the light pulse interactions with the GdFeCo layer [5]. A detail study showing how spin-polarized currents are generated and how they interact with magnetic layers (Ferromagnetic or Ferrimagnetic) to lead to magnetization switching will be presented.

30.01.20Prof. Matthias Wuttig, RWTH Aachen University of Technology, Germany
It has been a long-time dream of mankind to design materials with tailored properties. In recent years, the focus of our work has been the design of phase change materials for applications in data storage. In this application, a remarkable property portfolio of phase change materials (PCMs) is employed, which includes the ability to rapidly switch between the amorphous and crystalline state. Surprisingly, in PCMs both states differ significantly in their properties. This material combination makes them very attractive for data storage applications in rewriteable optical data storage, where the pronounced difference of optical properties between the amorphous and crystalline state is employed. This unconventional class of materials is also the basis of a storage concept to replace flash memory. This talk will discuss the unique material properties, which characterize phase change materials. In particular, it will be shown that only a well-defined group of materials utilizes a unique bonding mechanism (‘Bond No. 6’), which can explain many of the characteristic features of crystalline phase change materials. Different pieces of evidence for the existence of this novel bonding mechanism, which we have coined metavalent bonding, will be presented. In particular, we will present a novel map, which separates the known strong bonding mechanisms of metallic, ionic and covalent bonding, which provides further evidence that metavalent bonding is a novel and fundamental bonding mechanism. This insight is subsequently employed to design phase change materials as well as thermoelectric materials. Yet, the discoveries presented here also force us to revisit the concept of chemical bonds and bring back a history of vivid scientific disputes about ‘the nature of the chemical bond’.

06.02.20Markus Garst, KIT Karlsruhe, Germany
The weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in chiral magnets stabilizes spatially modulated magnetic textures like helices and skyrmion crystals. In this talk we focus on the dynamical properties of such textures. In the field-polarized phase of chiral magnets, the DMI results in a pronounced non-reciprocity of the magnon spectrum, i.e. the excitation energy is not symmetric with respect to an inversion of the wavevector. In the conical helix phase, the spin waves experience Bragg scattering off the periodic magnetic texture that leads to a backfolding of the magnon spectrum. As a result, the spectrum becomes reciprocal for wavevectors along the helix axes. However, the distribution of spectral weight in the spin structure factor remains non-reciprocal as confirmed by inelastic neutron scattering [1,2]. For wavevector with a finite perpendicular component of the wavevector, dipolar interactions induce a non-reciprocity which was detected by Brillouin light scattering [3]. We also discuss the spin wave spectrum of the skyrmion crystal phase where the non-trivial topology leads to an emergent electrodynamics for magnons. As a result the spectral weight of the spin structure factor is widely distributed at high energies. The spin wave excitations propagating along the skyrmion strings also exhibit a non-reciprocity as confirmed by spin wave spectroscopy [4]. Finally, we discuss the non-linear dynamics of a single skyrmion string [5].

27.02.20Shefali Vaidya, IRCELYON, Lyon, France
Molecular magnets to phase changing coordination polymers: criteria an challenges for molecules for their potential application in memory storage

05.03.20Thomas Allison, Stony Brook University, NY, USA
Time-resolved ARPES at 88 MHz repetition rate with full 2π collection

10.03.20Mehrdad Elyasi, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Magnons for Quantum Information

12.03.20Dr. Aga Shahee, Seoul University
Doping tunable multiferroicity in PbCu3TeO7 and magneto-electric coupling in Van der Waal CuCrP2S6

Koordination: Kontakt:

Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Elmers
Institut für Physik, KOMET 335
elmers@mail.uni-mainz.de

Daniela Reibel-ElBatanony
reibel@uni-mainz.de